Friday, August 18, 2017

Draft of First Amendment to IEC 62351-3 (power system security) Published

Draft IEC 62351-3/AMD1 ED1 (57/1894/CDV)
Amendment 1 – Power systems management and associated information exchange – Data and communications security – Part 3: Communication network and system security – Profiles including TCP/IP
The crucial amendment has been prepared by IEC TC57 Working Group 15 in order to address the following:

  1. Definition of additional security warnings for TLS versions 1.1 and 1.0
  2. Alignment of handling of revoked or expired certificates for TLS session resumption and TLS session renegotiation
  3. Clarification regarding session resumption and session renegotiation invocation based on session time.
  4. Enhancement of session resumption approach with the option of session tickets to better align with the upcoming new version of TLS
  5. Enhancement of the utilized public key methods for signing and key management with ECDSA based algorithms
  6. Update of the requirements for referencing standards
  7. Update of bibliograph
The CDV ballot ends 2017-11-03

Drei IEC-61850-Hands-On-Trainingskurse in Deutsch in Karlsruhe (2017 und 2018)

Die NettedAutomation GmbH (Karlsruhe) bietet drei Termine für das aktuelle IEC61850-Hands-On-Training in Karlsruhe an:
05.-08. Dezember 2017 
14.-17. Mai 2018
04.-07. Dezember 2018

Diese unschlagbar günstigen Trainingskurse vermitteln über 30 Jahre Erfahrungen mit Informationsaustausch-Systemen basierend auf internationalen Normenreihen wir IEC 61850 (allgemeine Anwendungen in der Energietechnik, Schaltanlagen, Transport- und Verteilnetze, Wasserkraft, Kraft-Wärmekopplung, Speicher, ...), IEC 61400-25 (Wind), IEC 60870-5-10x (traditionelle Fernwirktechnik), IEC 61158 (Feldbus), IEC 62351 (Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik) und vielen anderen.

Planen Sie schon heute das entsprechende Budget für das Jahr 2018!

Clicken Sie HIER für Inhalte, Preise und Anmeldeinformationen.

Thursday, August 17, 2017

SMA Inverter and Cyber Security Issues

Recently a study on cyber security threads regarding PV inverters was published, in which SMA was mentioned. The topic has also since been seized upon by other media outlets. Unfortunately, the claim has caused serious concern for SMA customers. SMA does not agree with this article, as some of the statements are not correct or greatly exaggerated.

Click HERE for the complete response by SMA.
HIER geht es zur deutschen Seite.

I hope that all vendors of network connected devices are as serious as SMA when it comes to security.

Thursday, August 10, 2017

Fuzzing Communication Protocols - Some Thoughts About a New Report

Have you heard about FUZZING?

Wikipedia explains:"Fuzzing or fuzz testing is an automated software testing technique that involves providing invalid, unexpected, or random data as inputs to a computer program. The program is then monitored for exceptions such as crashes, or failing built-in code assertions or for finding potential memory leaks. ..." Wow!

Is there any link to IEC 60870-5-104, OPC UA or IEC 61850? Yes there are people that have used the technique to test these and many other protocols.

The "State of Fuzzing 2017" report just published by SYNOPSIS (San Francisco) wants to make us belief that, e.g., the above mentioned protocols are weak and may crash easily. What?

The best is to read the report and my comments below. Other experts have commented similarly.

Click HERE to download the report.

Any kind of testing to improve IMPLEMENTATIONS of protocols is helpful. You can test implementations only – not the protocols or stacks per se.

One of the crucial questions I have with the fuzz testing report is: Which IMPLEMENTATION(s) did they test? Did they test 10 different or 100? Open source implementations only? New implementations or old? Or what?

Testing is always a good idea … more testing even a better approach. At the end of the day, customers have to pay for it (e.g., higher rates per kWh).

I would like to see more vendor-independent tests of any kind … but the user community must accept the higher costs. Are you ready to pay more? How much more would you accept to pay? 50%?

As long as vendors have the possibility to self-certify their products we will see more problems in the future.

Anyway: The best approach would be to use a different protocol for each IED … ;-)

What about testing the wide spectrum of application software? Not easy to automate … to fuzz.

You may have a protocol implementation without any error within one year … but an application that easily crashes … a holistic testing approach would be more helpful. IEC TC 57 WG 10 has discussed many times to define measures for functional tests … without any useful result so far. Utility experts from all over the world should contribute to that project – go and ask you manager to get approval for the next trips to New Orleans, Seoul, New York, Frankfurt, Brisbane, Tokyo, …  to contribute to functional testing. In case you do not attend – don’t complain in the future when IEDs crash …

The more complex an application is, the more likely it is that there will be serious and hard to find problems.

Crashing the protocol handler and application is one thing - what if they don’t crash but bad data gets through?

The report is a nice promotion for the fuzzing tools offered by Synopsis.
The last page states: "Synopsys offers the most comprehensive solution for building integrity—security and quality—into your SDLC and supply chain. We’ve united leading testing technologies, automated analysis, and experts to create a robust portfolio of products and services. ... our platform will help ensure the integrity of the applications that power your business."

Testing is very crucial and very complex. I hope that users of devices applying well known protocols in power system automation will soon better understand HOW important testing is - require various tests for devices they purchase and are willing to pay for it!
Start with an education phase as soon as possible - before it is too late.

Wednesday, August 9, 2017

Analysis Of The Malware Reportedly Used in the December 2016 Ukrainian Power System Attack

Senior experts of SANS ICS and E-ISAC have released a very good report:

ICS Defense Use Case No. 6:
Modular ICS Malware
August 2, 2017

This document contains a summary of information compiled from multiple publicly available sources, as well as analysis performed by the SANS Industrial Control Systems (ICS) team in relation to this event. Elements of the event provide an important learning opportunity for ICS defenders.

The sharing of this report is very much appreciated. It is very rare to get such a professional publicly available analysis about a significant and terrifying event in the control system world.

The report closes with this very important statement:

Defenders must take this opportunity to conduct operational and engineering discussions as suggested in this DUC and enhance their capabilities to gain visibility in to their ICS networks and hosts. The community must learn as much as it can from real world incidents and not delay; we expect adversaries to mature their tools and enhance them with additional capabilities.

I recommend you to study this document and get trained by the real experts - for the good of your country! Don't accept the decision of your HR ... not providing you the budget for training. Quite often HR managers believe that our systems are secure - no need for training on security, communication standards, etc.

Click HERE for the full report.

By the way, the SCADASEC blog (as a crucial platform for ICS defenders and other people) is a nice place to visit, discuss and learn issues related to the topics discussed in the paper.

Tuesday, August 8, 2017

Draft for Role Based Access Control (RBAC) Published (IEC 62351-90-1)

IEC TC 57 published the IEC TR 62351-90-1 Draft for Role Based Access Control (RBAC) [57/1905/DTR]:

IEC 62351 Data and communications security –
Part 90-1: Guidelines for handling role-based access control in power systems

The voting period closes on 2017-09-29.

"The power system sector is adopting security measures to ensure the reliable delivery of energy. One of these measures comprises Role-based Access Control (RBAC), allowing utility operators, energy brokers and end-users to utilize roles to restrict the access to equipment and energy automation functionalities on a need-to-handle basis. The specific measures to realize this functionality have been defined in the context of IEC 62351-8. It defines 3 profiles for the transmission of RBAC related information. This information is, but not limited to, being contained in public key certificates, attribute certificates, or software tokens. Moreover, especially for IEC 61850, it defines a set of mandatory roles and associated rights. The standard itself also allows the definition of custom roles and associated rights, but this is not specified in a way to ensure interoperability."

Data and communication security is a crucial issue in the communication between multiple IEC 61850 clients and an IED with a single IEC 61850 Server. The administration of the roles and further behavior requires a highly complex (centralized!?) administration and a complex functionality in each IED implementing RBAC.

The following aspects have a big impact on implementations:
  1. TCP/IP Networking,
  2. General security measures like TLS,
  3. RBAC, 
  4. MMS,
  5. IEC 61850 Services, Models and Configuration, and
  6. Power system functionalities (key for the power delivery system) on top
The bulk of resources needed are mainly independent of the MMS protocol and services. People that want to use other protocols cannot really expect that the cost for getting secure communication and data will be lowered - the most efforts are related to non-protocol issues.
The second, third, fifth, and sixth bullet are most crucial.
In addition to the cost of implementing RBAC (including the other required parts of the series IEC 62351) one has to understand that the operation, management, engineering, and configuration of RBAC consumes a relatively huge amount of resources of the embedded controllers or other platforms.
That is one of the crucial reasons why many IEDs installed today cannot (and likely will not) be upgraded for measures defined in the IEC 62351 series.

Recommendation: As soon as possible get started to understand the impact of the measures defined in IEC 62351 and how to implement some or many of these measures.

Related documents of the series IEC 62351 IEC/TS 62351, Power systems management and associated information exchange – Data and communications security – are:

Part 1: Communication network and system security – Introduction to security issues
Part 3: Communication network and system security – Profiles including TCP/IP
Part 4: Profiles including MMS
Part 5: Security for IEC 60870-5 and derivatives
Part 8: Role-based Access Control

Monday, August 7, 2017

IEC 61850, Sensors, and Cyber Threats

Sensors all over will be more important in the future: First to automate processes and second to monitor the automation systems.
The other day I found a very serious report on compromising automation systems under the title:

ICS cyber threats are morphing into compromise of plant functionality – do we have the right tools? 

The report by Joe Weiss is worth to read.

Click HERE for reading the complete report.

The discussion is about compromising an actuator (Valve, ...)  and let the physics do the damage!

Joe resumes: "Without sensor monitoring, it is NOT possible to see the precursor to these kinds of conditions until it is too late."

I have discussed the reported issues with an expert of valves in industrial process control applications. He confirmed that the cavitation (bubble or Wasserblasen) effect is known for long. But there are only a relatively few applications of (vibration) sensors installed to measure the noise produced by cavitation (see video at Youtube) to figure out that something is going wrong.

IEC 61850 has a bunch of models and services to support sensors:

and event reporting:

The quality attributes that come with all values could be used to flag that the value is valid or not. Additionally the sensor may have a health problem (figured out by a diagnosis routine) that can be reported using the TTMP.EEHealth.stVal attribute (EE - external equipment).

All models and services have to rely on good hardware and software! Or we get: Garbage in - Garbage out!

In our seminars and hands-on training courses we discuss these and many other topics in detail.

IEC 61850 Europe 2017 Conference and Exhibition in September 2017

The largest conference and exhibition on IEC 61850 and related topics invites you:

Multi-Vendor Multi-Edition IEC 61850
Implementation & Operation
3-Day Conference, Exhibition & Networking Forum
26-28 September 2017 
Novotel Amsterdam City
The Netherlands

Now firmly established as the European end-user forum for IEC 61850 experts and implementation leaders, this dedicated 3-day conference, exhibition and networking forum provides the information, inspiration, and connections you need to propel your IEC 61850 deployments further faster!

This year’s end-user driven programme explores the opportunities and challenges presented by sophisticated multi-vendor multi-edition IEC 61850 implementation, operation and maintenance. Utility experiences of advanced functionalities such as Process Bus, GOOSE Messaging, PRP & HSR, and Time Synchronisation are evaluated in the context of digital substations, as well as inter-substation, substation to SCADA systems, substation to metering infrastructure, and substation to DER.

Click HERE for the details of the event.

Attending this conference will give you a flavor of the market for IEC 61850 based systems.

After the conference you may have a lot of questions and my look for some senior experts that will guide you vendor-independently into the magic of the standard series.

Please have a look what kind of training FMTP and NettedAutomation offer you in October and December 2017 in Karlsruhe (Germany).

ENTSO-E Just Published a New Update on Activities Related to IEC 61850

ENTSO-E is actively supporting the application of IEC 61850.

They believe that "The IEC 61850 Standard for the design of electrical substation automation addresses many crucial aspects of TSO communications, data modeling and engineering in order to reach seamless interoperability of different vendors’ subsystems within the TSO system management architecture."

ENTSO-E published an Update on their activities related to IEC 61850 in July 2017.

ENTSO-E Ad Hoc Group IEC 61850 continued to intensively work on the improvement of the IEC 61850 standard interoperability on two main domains:
  1. At information level (data semantic), the development of the ENTSO-E profile through the Interoperability Specification Tool (ISTool)
  2. At engineering level, by consolidating ENTSO-E requirements that have been formalized into a DC (Document for Comment), approved through the IEC National Committees (NC) voting process, and now encapsulated in the action plan of several task forces of the IEC TC 57 WG10
Click HERE for reading the complete the report.

Comparison of IEC 60870-5-10x, DNP3, and IEC 60870-6-TASE.2 with IEC 61850

In 2008 I published the 3rd version of the document:

Comparison of IEC 60870-5-101/-103/-104, DNP3, and IEC 60870-6-TASE.2 with IEC 61850

This is really the most downloaded document since then - and still in 2017!

Click HERE for getting a copy.

It is interesting that so many people are still interested to see the difference between IEC 61850 and the other IEC TC 57 standard series.

Now, in 2017 we have learned that IEC 61850 goes far beyond the other standard series.

The RTU standards like 104 or DNP3 are still in widespread use. Utilities are expecting that many vendors of RTUs will start to discontinue to supporting these standards.
That is one of many reasons why more utilities are starting to get involved in understanding IEC 61850.

IEC PC 118 Has Published Two CDV Documents Dealing With Smart Grid Communication

IEC PC 118 "SMART GRID USER INTERFACE" has published two new CDV documents available for PUBLIC comments:

Systems interface between customer energy management system and the power management system – Part 10-1: Open Automated Demand Response [118/75/CDV] with 87 pages

Systems interface between customer energy management system and the power management system – Part 10-3: Adapting smart grid user interface to IEC CIM [118/76/CDV] with 27 pages

Both CDV (committee draft for vote) are accessible for PUBLIC comments (

These documents of IEC PC 118 are likely to have an impact on the work done and under development of IEC TC 57 and IEC TC 65. With your comments a duplication of work may be prevented.

Please use the opportunity to provide your comments through the IEC channel.

IEC 61850-90-9 Models for Electrical Energy Storage Systems

IEC 61850 Part 90-9: Use of IEC 61850 for Electrical Energy Storage Systems is progressing these days. The latest draft describes the basic functions of Electric Energy Storage System (EESS) and the information model of the interface to integrate EESS in intelligent grids and establish the necessary communication with standardised data objects. The next official draft is expected to be published soon.
This draft  is  connected  with  IEC 61850-7-420,  as  well  as  IEC 61850-7-4:2010, explaining how the control system and other functions in a battery based electric energy storage unit utilizes logical nodes and information  exchange services  within the IEC 61850 framework to specify the information exchanged between functions as well as information that individual functions need and generate. The first Edition of IEC 61850-7-420 provides an information model for batteries which was derived from the proposed data objects of part 7-4. Those data objects follow the requirements of batteries that are supposed to be used in substations as an auxiliary power system and as backup power supplies. For this purpose it was sufficient to only model the discharge function. Therefore it is necessary to prepare new logical nodes to be applicable for grid connected electrical energy storage systems.
This draft provides necessary information within 61850 based object model in order to model functions of a battery based electrical energy storage system as a DER unit. For intelligently operated and/or automated grids, storing energy for optimising the grid operation is a core function. Therefore shorter periods of storing energy with charging and discharging capability is also an indispensable function. Charging and discharging operations need to be modelled thoroughly and are in the focus of this technical report.

The draft lists several use-cases found in the real world:

UC1 Retrieve current status and capabilities of EESS
UC2 Set charging power to EESS
UC3 Set discharging power to EESS
UC4 Set Operating mode/ schedule  to EESS
UC5 EESS Alarm / Asset Monitoring

UC1 current capability /status information as an example:

1-2-1 EESS Generic Status Reporting
•  ES-DER on or off
•  Storage available or not available
•  Inverter/converter active power output
•  Inverter/converter reactive output
•  Storage remaining capacity (% and/or kW)
•  Storage Free capacity (% and/or kW)

1-2-2 EESS inverter /converter status
•  Current connect mode:  connected or disconnected at its ECP
•  Inverter on, off, and/or in stand-by status: inverter is switched on (operating), off
(not able to operate), or in stand-by
•  mode, e.g. capable of operating but currently not operating
•  DC current level available for operation: there is sufficient current to operate
•  Value of the output power setpoint
•  Value of the output reactive power setpoint
•  Value of the power factor setpoint as angle (optional)
•  Value of the frequency setpoint (optional)

1-2-3 EESS (battery) internal status
 •  Amp-hour capacity rating
•  Nominal voltage of battery
•  Maximum battery discharge current
•  Maximum battery charge voltage
•  High and Low battery voltage alarm level
•  Rate of output battery voltage change
•  Internal battery voltage
•  Internal battery current
•  State of charge (energy % of maximum charge level)
•  Reserve (Minimum energy charge level allowed, % of maximum charge level)
•  Available Energy (State of charge – Reserve)
•  Type of battery

1-2-4 Power measurements
•  Total Active Power (Total P): Value, High and Low Limits
•  Total Reactive Power (Total Q): Value, High and Low Limits
•  Average Power factor (Total PF): Value, High and Low Limits, and averaging time
•  Phase to ground voltages (VL1ER, …): Value, High and Low Limits

More to come ...

Wednesday, July 26, 2017

IEC TC 88 Published Edition 2 Documents for the Series IEC 61400-25

IEC TC 88 has published the edition 2 of the following two parts of the series IEC 61400-25:

IEC 61400-25-4: Wind energy generation systems -
Part 25-4: Communications for monitoring and control of wind power plants -
Mapping to communication profile
The mappings specified in this part of IEC 61400-25 comprise:
  •  SOAP-based web services,
  •  OPC/XML-DA,
  •  IEC 61850-8-1 MMS,
  •  IEC 60870-5-104,
  •  DNP3.
Click HERE for the Preview.

IEC 61400-25-6: Wind power generation systems -
Part 25-6: Communications for monitoring and control of wind power plants -
Logical node classes and data classes for condition monitoring

Click HERE for the Preview

Note that the mapping to MMS according to IEC 61850-8-1 is the most used communication protocol for applications in the Wind Power Industry.
The modeling approach and the models are now in general compatible with those defined in IEC 61850-7-x. This is a major step forward.
General gateway solutions for IEC 61850 could be used for wind energy generation systems to bridge from Profibus, ProfiNet, Modbus, CAN bus, ... to IEC 60870-5-104 or IEC 61850-8-1.

Friday, July 21, 2017

Data and Communications Security: IEC TC 57 Just Published IEC 62351-7

IEC TC 57 just published IEC 62351-7:2017:
Power systems management and associated information exchange - Data and communications security - Part 7: Network and System Management (NSM) data object models

IEC 62351-7:2017 defines network and system management (NSM) data object models that are specific to power system operations. These NSM data objects will be used to monitor the health of networks and systems, to detect possible security intrusions, and to manage the performance and reliability of the information infrastructure. The goal is to define a set of abstract objects that will allow the remote monitoring of the health and condition of IEDs (Intelligent Electronic Devices), RTUs (Remote Terminal Units), DERs (Distributed Energy Resources) systems and other systems that are important to power system operations. This new edition constitutes a technical revision and includes the following significant technical changes with respect to IEC TS 62351-7 (2010): NSM object data model reviewed and enriched; UML model adopted for NSM objects description; SNMP protocol MIBs translation included as Code Components.
The Code Components included in this IEC standard are also available as electronic machine readable file.
Click HERE for the Preview.
Click HERE for the Code Components.
The standard series IEC 61850 will also come with Code Components when the various 7-x parts will be published as International Standard. This will ease the development and maintenance of engineering and configuration tools ... tremendously.
Check HERE for Code Components ... coming later in 2017 or 2018 ...

Again Security: How do you Protect your Industrial Control System from Electronic Threats?

Industrial Control System (ICS) need to be protected from Electronic Threats - one of the most crucial challenge yesterday, today, and in the future. Joseph Weiss (PE, CISM - one of the real senior experts in the field) uses the term “electronic threats” rather than cyber security because there are many electronic threats to Industrial Control Systems beyond traditional cyber threats (as he says).

Joe Weiss has written a book with more than 300 pages published in 2010 worth to study (and more important TO IMPLEMENT): "Protecting Industrial Control Systems from Electronic Threats"
List of contents:
  1. Industrial Control System Descriptions
  2. Convergence of Industrial Control Systems and Information Technology
  3. Differences between Industrial Control Systems and Information Technology
  4. Electronic Threats to Industrial Control Systems
  5. Myths
  6. Current Personnel Status and Needs
  7. Information Sharing and Disclosure
  8. Industrial Control System Cyber Risk Assessments
  9. Selected Industry Activities
  10. Industrial Control System Security Trends and Observations
  11. Industrial Control System Cyber Security Demonstrations
  12. Selected Case Histories: Malicious Attacks
  13. Selected Case Histories: Unintentional  Incidents
  14. Industrial Control System Incident Categorization
  15. Recommendations
As long as you can read this blog post you could assume that there is enough power for all computers involved in the chain from the server holding this bog to your computer.
When you will see the following message on your screen: "Sorry, we are out power!" don't worry that much - because the only message you CANNOT SEE ON YOUR SCREEN IS: "SORRY; WE ARE OUT OF POWER. No power no screen display. ;-) 
Click HERE for more details on the book.
I guess Joe would have spent another 100 or so pages to talk about IoT vulnerability if he would have written the book now. 
In a report published the other day by Wired you can read:
"On Tuesday, the internet-of-things-focused security firm Senrio revealed a hackable flaw it's calling "Devil's Ivy" a vulnerability in a piece of code called gSOAP widely used in physical security products, potentially allowing faraway attackers to fully disable or take over thousands of models of internet-connected devices from security cameras to sensors to access-card readers.
Using the internet-scanning tool Shodan, Senrio found 14,700 of XXXX's cameras alone that were vulnerable to their attack-at least, before XXXX patched it. And given that's one of the dozens of ONVIF companies alone that use the gSOAP code, Senrio's researchers estimate the total number of affected devices in the millions."
Click HERE for the full Wired report.
How long will you wait to implement more measures to protect your industrial control system?
Start now - latest next Monday.

Tuesday, July 18, 2017

IXXAT (HMS) Offers New POWERFUL Smart Grid Gateways for IEC 61850, IEC 60870-5, Profibus and more

Under the IXXAT brand, HMS delivers connectivity solutions for embedded control, energy, safety and automotive testing.
The new and very powerful IIoT gateways from HMS allow industrial equipment to communicate with power grids based on IEC 60870-5-104 and IEC 61850. In addition they also include Modbus TCP Client/Server and Modbus RTU Master/Slave

IXXAT SG-gateways...
  • enable easy remote control and management of electrical systems
  • allow to log and display application data and energy consumption
  • provide IEC 61850 client/server and IEC 60870-5-104 server support
  • have in-built Modbus TCP Client/Server and Modbus RTU Master/Slave interfaces
  • provide connectivity for CAN Bus, I/O, M-Bus, PROFIBUS, PROFINET and EtherNet/IP based devices
Click HERE for more details in English
Hier klicken für Details in Deutsch

Friday, July 14, 2017

How Much Will The Implementation Of Security Measures Cost?

Almost everybody is talking about security measures in the context of automation and communication systems in factories, power plants, substations, hospitals, ... Talking about the topic is one thing - what's about implementing and sustainable use of secure systems? Hm, a good question.
A news report published on June 13, 2017, under the title
"The “Internet of Things” is way more vulnerable
than you think—and not just to hackers

points out that many - maybe most - devices that communicate using internet technologies are not capable to carry the load needed for reasonable security measures. One paragraph referring to Joe Weiss (a well known expert) is eye-catching:
"Weiss believes that the first step in securing the IoT is to build entirely new devices with faster processors and more memory. In essence, hundreds of billions of dollars’ worth of machines need to be replaced or upgraded significantly."

Click HERE to read the complete report.

I would like to see - at least - more powerful platforms when it comes to new installations. Be aware that the cost of a new platform with implemented state-of-the-art security measures is one thing. Another thing is to implement a more centralized security infrastructures to manage the security.
IEC 62351-9 specifies cryptographic key management, namely how to generate, distribute, revoke, and handle X.509 digital certificates and cryptographic keys to protect digital data and its communication.
Primary goals of the series IEC 62351 are considered for the use of cryptography:
  • Verifying the claimed identity of a message sender (authentication);
  • Verifying that the sender has the right to access the requested data (authorization);
  • Ensuring no one has tampered with a message during transit (integrity);
  • Obscuring the contents of a message from unintended recipients (confidentiality);
  • Associating specific actions with the entity that performed them (non-repudiation).
It is recommended for vendors and users to pay more attention to IEC 62351 (and other standards) and to listen carefully to the experts involved in protecting our infrastructures.
A reasonable white paper on the matter has been published by the BDEW (Germany): "Requirements for Secure Control and Telecommunication Systems".
Click HERE to access the BDEW white paper.
Click HERE for further information (some documents are in English).
Click HERE for a paper discussing the BDEW white paper.

Tuesday, July 11, 2017

Interactive Information about German Power Generation, Load and Export/Import

The German regulator of the electric power network has just opened a new website which gives you a deep inside view in power generation, load and export/import.

Graph from the new website.
Click HERE to access the new website.
This is a very interesting service ... to see what's going on.