Saturday, December 24, 2016

DTR IEC 61850-7-500: How to use IEC 61850 for SAS

IEC TC 57 has published a Draft Technical Report (57/1817/DTR; 84 pages) with guidelines on how to apply IEC 61850 for substation automation:

Communication networks and systems for power utility automation –
Part 7-500: Basic information and communication structure – Use of logical nodes for modeling application functions and related concepts and guidelines for substations

Voting closes 2017-02-17

This is a document that you MUST read when you are involved in substation automation.

This Technical Report of IEC 61850 describes the use of the information model for devices and functions of IEC 61850 in applications in substation automation systems but it may be used as informative input also for the modeling of any other application domain. In particular, it describes the use of compatible logical node names and data objects names for communication between Intelligent Electronic Devices (IED) for use cases. This includes the relationship between Logical Nodes and Data Objects for the given use cases. ...
Part 7-5 describes in examples the use of logical nodes for modeling application functions and related concepts and guidelines in general independently from any application domain respectively valid for all application domains in the electric power system (substation automation, distributed energy resources, hydro power, wind power, etc.). This part 7-500 describes in examples the use of logical nodes for application functions in substation automation including also line protection between substations. It implies also some tutorial material where helpful. But it is recommended to read parts IEC 61850-5 and IEC 61850-7-1 in conjunction with IEC 61850-7-3 and IEC 61850-7-2 first.

New: Modelling of Logics for IEC 61850 Based Applications

IEC TC 57 has published a very interesting proposal (57/1814/DC; 49 pages) for modelling logics:

IEC TR 61850-90-11, Communication networks and systems for power utility automation –
Part 90-11: Methodologies for modelling of logics for IEC 61850 based applications

Comments are expected by 2017-02-03

This part of IEC 61850 describes the methodologies for the modelling of logics for IEC 61850 based applications in power utility automation. In particular, it describes the functional view of logic based on existing logical nodes for generic process automation and the operational modes of the logic. Furthermore it includes the specification of the standard language to be applied to specific the logic as well as the related data exchange format between engineering tools and their application as well as the mapping of logic elements to IEC 61850 data types.

The IEC 61131-3 PLC programming language is used to describe syntax of functions.

Example PLD (Programmable Logic Description): The PLD file contains the logic unit program code in PLC OpenXML format, representing the description of the logic programmable scheme that can then be mapped to a GAPC LN instance. Excerpt:



... more to come next year.

Guideline for definition of Basic Application Profiles (BAPs) using IEC 61850

IEC TC 57 has published a document for comments (57/1813/DC, 27 pages) on application profiles::

Draft IEC TR 61850-7-6, Communication networks and systems for power utility automation –
Part 7-6: Guideline for definition of Basic Application Profiles (BAPs) using IEC 61850

Comments are expected by 2017-02-03

This guideline is focused on building Application / function profiles and specifies a methodology to define Basic Application profiles (BAPs). These Basic Application profiles shall provide a framework for interoperable interaction within or between typical substation automation functions. BAPs are intended to define a subset of mandatory features of IEC 61850 in order to increase interoperability in practical applications.

In the context of standards the term “profile” is commonly used to describe a subset of an entity (e.g. standard, model, rules).
Accordingly an IEC 61850 standard profile contain a selection of data models (mandatory elements), communication services applicable and relevant engineering conventions (based on the Substation Configuration Language SCL defined in IEC 61850-6) for an application function of a specific use case in the domain of power utility automation.
Depending on the scope and objective different profile types can be distinguished:

  • User profile – defined subset that is valid for a specific user / organization (e.g. utility)
  • Product / Device profile – implemented subset in a specific vendor product /device
  • Domain profile – defined subset for a specific domain and relevant use cases (e.g. monitoring of substation)
  • Application / function profile
A nice example is contained in Annex A:
Example for BAP of distributed automation function “reverse blocking” using BAP template

CIM for Distribution Network Operations

IEC TC 57 has published the FDIS (57/1810/FDIS; 160 pages) of the future standard IEC 61968-3 Ed2:
Application integration at electric utilities - System interfaces for distribution management -
Part 3: Interface for network operations
Voting closes 2017-02-03

IEC 61968 provides utilities the means to supervise main substation topology (breaker
and switch state) and control equipment status. It also provides the means for handling
network connectivity and loading conditions. Finally, it makes it possible for utilities to locate
customer telephone complaints and supervise the location of field crews.
IEC 61968-3 specifies the information content of a set of message payloads that can be used
to support many of the business functions related to network operations. Typical uses of the
message payloads defined in IEC 61968-3 include data acquisition by external systems, fault
isolation, fault restoration, trouble management, maintenance of plant, and the commissioning
of plant.

This part is closely related to the Common Information Model (CIM).

Monday, December 19, 2016

Closing 2016 - Greetings from Karlsruhe

As 2016 comes to a close, I say "a hearty Thank You!" for choosing our services, visiting the IEC 61850 blog, and for the great cooperation this year.

I wish you, your family, and the many people around you a happy, healthy and prosperous New Year 2017 … living in peace and harmony.

Hope your home is a safe place to live. Take care.

Please, help to keep the power flowing and the grass green - with the various standards defined by IEC and IEEE.

I look forward to meeting you in 2017 - maybe soon in San Diego (CA) on January 30, 2017.

Please drop us an email if you like this blog or you would like me to post other interesting information on the blog.

Bye for now.

Saturday, December 10, 2016

OpenGridMap - Help to collect data and produce power grid approximations for CIM


OpenGridMap is a new open community that crowdsources realistic power grid data to be used for research purposes. Here you will find the tools for crowdsourcing power grid data. The goal is to create an open platform for inferring realistic power grids based on actual data. Our vision is to provide a tool to researchers and practitioners that is able to produce realistic input data for simulation studies. OpenGridMap will support the entire process from data collection to formatting grid data for various purposes. We explore innovative ways to capture data and produce power grid approximations, e.g., using smartphone apps, drones, expert classification, existing map APIs, and graph inference algorithms.

Click HERE to visit the OpenGridMap website.

The next step would be to convert the collected data into a CIM and SCL format ... it is underway for CIM (Common Information Model):

OpenGridMap: towards automatic power grid simulation model generation from crowdsourced data
By Jose Rivera, Technische Universität München

"OpenGridMap is an open source project that crowdsources realistic power grid data to be used for research purposes. In this paper, we propose an approach for the automatic generation of power gird simulation models from crowdsourced data. The proposed approach orders the crowdsourced data into a power circuit relation which is then used to produce a CIM description file and subsequently a power grid simulation model. ..." ... and I guess the modelling in IEC 61850-6 SCL (System Configuration Language) will follow soon - I am sure.

Click HERE for the above mentioned paper.

More to come as discussed during the Training Courses conducted by NettedAutomation this week in Karlsruhe:

Friday, December 2, 2016


IEC-61850-Seminare zu unschlagbaren Preisen in Karlsruhe auch in 2017

Wir bieten auch im nächsten Jahr zwei Intesiv-Hands-On-Seminare an:

09.-12. Mai 2017 
05.-08. Dezember 2017

Die drei (3) Blöcke (1 Tag + 2 Tage + 1 Tag) können einzeln oder in Kombination gebucht werden. Sie entscheiden selbst, ob Sie nur einen Tag von Ihrem Arbeitsplatz fern bleiben möchten oder zwei, drei oder vier. Je nachdem, welche Zeit und welchen Bedarf Sie haben.

HIER klicken, um zur Beschreibung und den Anmeldeunterlagen zu gelangen [pdf, 430 KB].

Thursday, December 1, 2016

BDEW IT-Sicherheitsempfehlungen öffentlich zugänglich

Der BDEW (Bundesverband für Energie- und Wasserwirtschaft e.V., Berlin) hat seit Jahren weitreichende Empfehlungen für die IT-Sicherheit veröffentlicht und mehrfach aktualisiert.
Aus aktuellem Anlass (unter anderem die Einbrüche in DSL-Router) ist die Beachtung der vorliegenden Empfehlungen unbedingt angebracht!!

IT-Sicherheitsempfehlungen
1. Allgemeine Empfehlungen
  • Whitepaper- Anforderungen an sichere Steuerungs- und Telekommunikationssysteme (PDF)
  • Ausführungshinweise zur Anwendung des Whitepaper - Anforderungen an sichere Steuerungs- und Telekommunkationssysteme (PDF)
  • Checkliste zum Whitepaper - Anforderungen an sichere Steuerungs- und Telekommunikations-systeme (XLSX)
2. Technische Empfehlungen für den sicheren Datenaustausch in der Marktkommunikation
  • Studie über sichere webbasierte Übertragungswege, Version 2.1 (PDF)
  • Marktüberblick AS2-Lösungen in der Energiewirtschaft (15 MB) (PDF)
  • Leitfaden "Implementierung AS2 in Unternehmen der Energiewirtschaft" (PDF)
  • PKI Zertifikatsrichtlinie (Certificate Policy) des BDEW (PDF)
  • Unternehmensübergreifende PKI-Topologien, PKI-Dienste und Einsatzrahmenbedingen (PDF)
  • Zehn Schritte zur VEDIS-Sicherheit (PDF)
  • Häufig gestellte Fragen - FAQ zu VEDIS (PDF)
  • Zertifizierungsrichtlinie (PDF)
  • Umgang mit Schlüsselmaterial (PDF)
HIER klicken, um die 12 Dokumente (jeweils mit einem eigenen Link) frei herunterzuladen.

Das Lesen und Verstehen wird etwas Zeit in Anspruch nehmen - die Umsetzung wird ungleich aufwendiger werden!
Sie sollten Ihr Management überzeugen, diese Empfehlungen ernst zu nehmen - nicht nur, um irgendwelche Anforderungen in Regulierungen oder Gesetzen zu erfüllen.

Wednesday, November 30, 2016

Draft IEC 62351-90-2 Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) of encrypted communications

IEC TC 57 just published a very crucial draft document proposing a new topic to the security of communication in power delivery systems applicable to DNP3, IEC 60870-5-104, IEC 60870-6 (TASE.2), IEC 61850 and the like:
57/1792/DC
Proposed draft for IEC TR 62351-90-2, Power systems management and associated information exchange – Data and communications security –
Part 90-2 Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) of encrypted communications

The standard series IEC 62351 comprises methods to secure communication channels between IEDs and between IEDs and SCADA systems. Complex communication networks have to be monitored and health-checked properly, both from an operational and from a security perspective.
The monitoring process used is called Deep Packet Inspection (DPI), and relies on the availability of the whole payload for inspection. The need for DPI on communication channels between IEDs and SCADA and/or between IEDs by an independent third party is really important.
This report serves as a guide for the implementation of DPI in encrypted communications. It is intended as an overview of existing and possible new solutions for DPI, analyzing the impact on several factors, including security, performance and cost.

Monday, November 21, 2016

NEW HW: IEC 61850-9-2 LE Sampled Value Publisher

The SystemCorp "IEC 61850-9-2 LE Sampled Value Publisher" is a hardware platform for specific sampled value publisher applications for the Smart Grid IoT Platform from Novtech using the Altera (now part of Intel) dual core ARM/FPGA Cyclone V SoC.
This Smart Grid IoT Platform provides eight high precision analogue inputs. The A/D converter is directly controlled by the FPGA producing the sampling rate required for the SV publisher,   which is implemented in one ARM core.
The Sampled Values are published at a rate of 4000 frames per second for a grid frequency of 50Hz and 4800 frames per second for 60 Hz.
An eight channel VT/CT interface module is also available from SystemCORP Embedded technology allowing a direct connection of the Smart Grid IoT Platform to 110 V VTs and 5 A CTs.





Click HERE for downloading a two page description and additional information [pdf, 390 KB].

Tuesday, November 1, 2016

Crucial IEEE 802 And Other IEEE Standards For Free Download

The IEEE Get program grants public access to view and download current individual standards at no charge:

IEEE 802® Standards
IEEE 1622™ Standard: Electronic Distribution of Blank Ballots for Voting Systems | Design Automation Standards
IEEE 2600™ Standards: Hardcopy Device and System Security 
IEEE C95™ Standards: Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields
IEEE/ANSI N42 Standards: Radiation Detection Standards.

Click HERE for the list of IEEE Standards available for free download.

Monday, October 31, 2016

Reminder: Many ISO/IEC Standards Are Publicly Available

ISO and IEC provide free access to many older and newer standards like

ISO/IEC 27000 (Fourth edition 2016-02-15):

Information technology — Security techniques — Information security
management systems — Overview and vocabulary

Click HERE for the above standard ISO/IEC 27000.
Click HERE for the complete list of publicly available standards.

Friday, October 28, 2016

IEC 61850 - Take a Closer Look For The Best Possible Start in San Diego

FMTP (Uppsala, Sweden), NettedAutomation (Karlsruhe, Germany), and OPAL-RT (Montreal, Canada) will conduct a one day intensive course that opens doors You never dreamed possible:

Demystifying and mastering the complexity of IEC 61850

Location:
Holiday Inn Express San Diego South - Chula Vista
632 E Street
Chula Vista, CA 91910

Date:
Monday, 30 January 2017 from 10:00 AM to 4:00 PM (PST)

The online registration is now open:
Click HERE for Registration.

A 60 US$ Early Bird Discount applies until 31 Dec 2016.
Register today!

Thursday, October 27, 2016

Industrial Internet of Things (IIOT) - Security Framework

The Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC) has published a draft Security Framework (173 pages).
The framework is quite interesting for all experts involved in information exchange systems ... also in the energy application domain.
The Introductions says in the second paragraph:
"These [IIOT - Industrial Internet of Things] systems differ from traditional industrial control systems by being connected extensively to other systems and people, increasing their diversity and scale. They also differ from traditional information technology (IT) systems in that they use sensors and actuators in an industrial environment. These are typically systems that interact with the physical world where uncontrolled change can lead to hazardous conditions. This potential risk increases the importance of safety, reliability, privacy and resiliency beyond the levels expected in many traditional IT environments."
The power systems are using sensors and actuators communicating with protection and automation systems for the last decades. The industry has developed the standard series IEC 61850, IEC 62351, IEC 60870-5-104, DNP3, IEC 61968/70, and IEC 61400-25 to provide a basis for safe, reliable, resilient, and secure power delivery systems. These stable standards are state-of-the-art in power delivery systems. And they are referenced in many Frameworks and Roadmaps. The series IEC 62351 is one of the crucial series dealing with security in power automation systems:

Click HERE for a copy of the IIC framework [pdf, 4.6 MB].
Click HERE for a white paper about the IEC 62351 series [pdf, 3.5 MB] and HERE for a page on Wikipedia.

The IIC Security Framework gives an overview about many aspects in the future distributed automation and which aspects are crucial to be managed. 

Tuesday, October 18, 2016

Basic Application Profiles (BAPs) using IEC 61850

IEC TC 57 has proposed to develop a new Technical Report (TR):

IEC TR 61850-7-6: Communication networks and systems for power utility automation –
Part 7-6: Guideline for definition of Basic Application Profiles (BAPs) using IEC 61850
(57/1782/DC)

The proposed work will:
  • describe the methodology of profiling in the context of IEC 61850
  • give a common understanding about the modular profiling concept of basic application profiles (BAP)
  • define the contents of a standardized basic application profile (BAP template)
  • give guidance for the use of that BAP template
  • and also show an example of a BAP.

IEC-61850-Seminar in Karlsruhe vom 06.-09. Dezember 2016 zu Einem Unschlagbarem Preis

Wir bieten vom
06.-09. Dezember 2016 in Karlsruhe ein IEC-61850-Intensiv-Seminar an
Die drei (3) Blöcke (1 Tag + 2 Tage + 1 Tag) können einzeln oder in Kombination gebucht werden. Sie entscheiden selbst, ob Sie nur einen Tag von Ihrem Arbeitsplatz fern bleiben möchten oder zwei, drei oder vier. Je nachdem, welche Zeit und welchen Bedarf Sie haben.

Am ersten Tag wird ein Überblick über das Normungsumfeld und die einzelnen Normen gegeben. Im Mittelpunkt stehen dabei die grundlegenden Eigenschaften und Bedeutung der Normenreihe IEC 61850 für Systemdesign, System- und Geräteengineering, Datenmodellierung, Datenmodelle (Schutz, Messwerte, Steuerungen, Power Quality Monitoring, Wind Power, Hydro Power, Dezentrale Erzeuger, ...), Kommunikationsmöglichkeiten (Client/Server, Publisher/Subscriber) und Sicherheitslösungen (IEC 62351).
Der Vergleich mit IEC 60870-5-104, DNP3, Modbus und Feldbussen rundet den ersten Tag ab.

Am zweiten Tag werden die Modellierungsmethode, die vielfältigen Modelle (Logische Knoten), die Kommunikationsdienste und -protokolle und die System-Konfigurations-Sprache (SCL) im Detail vorgestellt. Die Lösungen nach VHPready und FNN-Steuerbox werden präsentiert und diskutiert.

Am dritten Tag werden anhand vieler praktischer SCL-Beispiele Systembeschreibungen (SSD), Systemkonfigurationen (SCD), Gerätekonfigurationen (ICD und CID für Server/Publisher, Client/Subscriber und Server/Subscriber) diskutiert, erstellt und formal geprüft. Dabei kommt eine Reihe von Werkzeugen und Geräten zum Einsatz.

Am vierten Tag wird das Erlernte in praktischen Übungen mit marktgängigen Steuerungsgeräten, Gateways und Werkzeugen vertieft. Eine Windows-Evaluierungspaket mit Client, Server, GOOSE-Publisher, Client/GOOSE-Subscriber und Server/GOOSE-Subscriber wird allen Teilnehmern kostenlos zur Verfügung gestellt; dieses Paket kann auch nach dem Seminar noch genutzt werden.
Und viels andere mehr. 
Eine Spezialität unserer Seminare ist, dass die Teilnehmer zu Wort kommen: Fragen, Erfahrungen, Bedenken, Berichten über gelungene und weniger gelungene Projekte!
Es erwartet Sie ein lebhafter Dialog zwischen dem Referenten und den Teilnehmern.
Sie können den 1. Tag, den 2. und 3. Tag sowie den 4. Tag getrennt oder in jeder Kombination buchen!
Mit unserer Schulung bereiten wir Sie hervorragend auf neue Herausforderungen vor!

Klicken Sie HIER, um mehr Details und die Anmeldeinformationen herunterzuladen [pdf, 320 KB].

Reservieren Sie noch heute Ihren Platz!

Die mehr als 4.100 Teilnehmer meiner über 230 Seminare seit 2004 würden sicher alle bestätigen, dass das komplexe Thema IEC 61850 unbedingt eine geeignete Schulung verlangt -- und dass wir eine erst-klassische und einzigartige Schulung bieten! Zu einem unschlagbaren Preis! Garantiert!
Es erwartet Sie Erfahrungen mit hunderten von Firmen und Organisationen!

Saturday, October 15, 2016

Wind Energy Generation Systems: Edition 2 Drafts of IEC 61400-25 Published

IEC TC 88 has published recently the following draft documents for the edition 2 of the corresponding parts:

IEC 61400-25-1: Wind energy generation systems -
Part 25-1: Communications for monitoring and control of wind power plants -
Overall description of principles and models
(88/587/CDV)

IEC 61400-25-4: Wind energy generation systems -
Part 25-4: Communications for monitoring and control of wind power plants -
Mapping to communication profile
(88/600/FDIS)

IEC 61400-25-5: Wind energy generation systems -
Part 25-5: Communications for monitoring and control of wind power plants -
Conformance testing
(88/589/CDV)

IEC 61400-25-6: Wind power generation systems -
Part 25-6: Communications for monitoring and control of wind power plants -
Logical node classes and data classes for condition monitoring
(88/606/FDIS)

Note 1: The title of TC 88 was changed in 2015 from Wind turbines to Wind energy generation systems
Note 2: Please note the tissue database for the whole standards series:
http://tissue.iec61400-25.com/default.mspx

Major Changes in these documents:

IEC 61400-25-1:
Changes compared to Edition 1:
• General harmonization of text and overview models with the other parts of the IEC
61400-25 series
• Harmonization of definitions in other related standards
The users of IEC 61400-25 have formed a community, USE61400-25. For further information
see http://www.use61400-25.com.

IEC 61400-25-4:
A lot of modifications have been implemented in order to harmonize with other parts of the series IEC 61400-25 as well as with IEC 61850. Note that a mapping to OPC UA is not part of this
second edition of IEC 61400-25-4

IEC 61400-25-5:
The scope of revision includes:
• Harmonization with test cases in IEC61850-10 Edition 2.0
• The use of SCL in the conformance testing process is out of the scope for Ed2, but will be considered for Edition 3.
• Reduction of overlap between standards and simplification by increased referencing to the IEC 61850 standard series
The following main revisions have been made compared to Edition 1.0:
• The complete document has been restructured in order to match the structure of IEC 61850-10 Edition 2.0.
• All test cases applying SCL files are still not a part of the present document as the SCL specifications for wind power domain are still pending to be published.

IEC 61400-25-6:
This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous
edition:
a) Major restructuring of the data model to accommodate needed flexibility.
b) UFF58 format is no longer used.
c) Access to data is now using the standard reporting and logging functions.
d) Recommendations for creating data names to accommodate needed flexibility have been
defined.

IEEE PES published Report on "Centralized Substation Protection and Control"

The IEEE Power System Relaying Committee has published a very comprehensive report worth to be read by power system engineers dealing with substation protection and automation (partlywith focus on the  North American market):

Centralized Substation Protection and Control IEEE PES
Power System Relaying Committee Report of Working Group K15
of the Substation Protection Subcommittee
(2015-12)

Excerpt of the Introduction:
"The power grid is now more dynamic than ever before and newer tools are increasingly developed to manage the grid better. Renewable energy sources are changing power system characteristics at a time when utilities are also focusing on improving customer service and resiliency of the grid, by using advanced monitoring and control technologies....
In addition, communication technologies are advancing and related international standards are maturing to be deployed in substation environment. ... the IEEE Power System Relaying Committee has formed a working group to prepare a report describing and analyzing the state-of-the-art technologies for centralized protection and control (CPC) within a substation...
This report starts by reviewing the advancements in substation protection and control technology. Next the report describes CPC and reviews its history. Then the report reviews some of the existing
technologies that can support CPC.
Finally the report concludes that CPC technology, when appropriately applied, significantly improves the reliability of protection and control systems and the power grid at an affordable cost - with enhanced applications capability and maintainability for both hardware replacement an software upgrade."

Click HERE for the full report [pdf, 80 pages, 4.4 MB]

The report gives inside views of the challenges in managing future power systems. Power systems are very complex - and will become more complex in the near future. In addition to the fact that "utilities are also focusing on improving customer service and resiliency of the grid" the utilities are quite often focusing on increasing their shareholder values ... and outsourcing many tasks. In the German "vdi nachrichten" (a very famous weekly German technical newspaper) I read yesterday an interesting statement of the new president of the BDEW (Bundesverbandes der Energie- und Wasserwirtschaft):

Translated: " ... Unfortunately the industry invests too little in view of the challenges in research and development. The German Pharmaceutical industry employs 40,000 humans in R&D laboratories.
In the energy industry there are not such research and development mechanisms. That is not because of the fact that our industry is come to a hold and does not see challenges. It is financially no more able to implement comparable research activities. We have no more enterprises, which can do that. Everyone knows nevertheless around the difficult situation of many large energy enterprises. Also normal public distribution utilities cannot advance innovative developments in the storage area."

Original: " ... Leider investiert die Branche angesichts der Herausforderungen zu wenig in Forschung und Entwicklung. Die deutsche Pharmaindustrie beschäftigt 40 000 Menschen in F- und E-Laboren.
In der Energiewirtschaft gibt es solche Forschungs- und Entwicklungseinrichtungen nicht. Das liegt nicht daran, dass unsere Branche verstockt ist und Herausforderungen nicht sieht. Sie ist finanziell nicht mehr zu vergleichbaren Forschungsleistungen in der Lage. Wir haben keine Unternehmen mehr, die das können. Jeder weiß doch um die schwierige Lage vieler großer Energieunternehmen. Auch normale Stadtwerke können bahnbrechende Entwicklungen im Speicherbereich nicht voranzutreiben."

Vendors, too, are struggling with similar challenges. We need more universities to compensate these situations. When it comes to the definition and application of information exchange systems in power or energy systems, we could be quite happy that we have the well accepted standards IEC 61968/70 (CIM), IEC 60870-5-104, DNP3, IEC 61850, IEC 61400-25, ICCP/TASE.2 (IEC 60870-6), ...

Friday, October 14, 2016

Distribution On-Load Tap Changer Control Using IEC 61850 Client /Server Architecture


Mr. Andrius Maneikis has successfully finished his master thesis at KTH (Stockholm, Sweden) in electrical engineering with the title:

Distribution On Load Tap Changer Control Using IEC 61850 Client /Server Architecture

Please click HERE to download his thesis [pdf, 93 pages, 17 MB].

Abstract. Distributed generation is transforming the power system grid to decentralized system where separate units like wind power generators or solar panel shall coexist and operate in tandem in order to supplement each other and make one extensive system as a whole so called smart grid. It is utmost important to have a control ability over such units not only on a field level but on a system level as well. To be able to communicate with numerous devices and maintain interoperability universal standard is a must. Therefore, one of the core standards relevant to smart grids is IEC 61850 – Power Utility Automation which comes into assistance and tackles aforementioned challenges. This project uses IEC 61850 architecture to implement client/server windows applications for on-load tap changer remote control. The proposed solution and designed applications are tested together with a real time simulator [OPAL] where simple power system is modelled to emulate the system response to control signals in a real time. In this way, the implemented applications can be tried and assessed as if performing in real environment. Consequently, a user of the client application is able to remotely control voltage on the power transformer's secondary side and manipulate the switching equipment simulated in the model.

Friday, October 7, 2016

Huge KIT Energy Lab 2.0 - Relies on IEC 61850

The KIT (Karlsruher Institut für Technologie) in my hometown Karlsruhe/Germany is deeply involved in several projects related to the Energiewende. One of the crucial components is the "Energy Lab 2.0".

In "A Concept for the Control, Monitoring and Visualization Center in Energy Lab 2.0" the authors Clemens Düpmeier, Veit Hagenmeyer, Ralf Mikut, and Karl-Uwe Stucky present an interesting concept.

Click HERE for a 16 page presentation presented in November 2015.

The research focuses on the APPLICATION of Control, Monitoring, and Visualization of various aspects of energy systems (gas, electricity, heat) - not just electrical systems.

IEC 61850 is THE solution for the process instrumentation - share process information in a standardized way.

These people have understood that the focus is on applications rather than on protocols ...
The 14 Layer Cake I had after a nice dinner in Jakarta show that the automation of the energy systems of the future is more than "just another protocol" ... applications based on standard protocols are the crucial aspects:



Hm, the cake was very delicious.

Tuesday, October 4, 2016

FITNESS Pilot: Are You Fit For The Future?

Are You Fit For The Future?
IEC 61850 is a crucial component in the FITNESS pilot project:

Presentation of the project: Thursday October 27, 2016 from 1:30 PM to 5:30 PM

Future Intelligent Transmission Network SubStation (FITNESS) is the pilot live multi-vendor digital substation demonstration in GB. The project was successfully awarded under RIIO NIC, Ofgem, in late 2015 and detailed design work began in 2016. Together with our partners GE Grid Solutions, ABB, Synaptec and the University of Manchester we will like to invite to share the objectives of project FITNESS, selection of substation architecture, discussions about change in substation design principles to optical measuring techniques and of course international substation standard IEC 61850. The event will be a part of the international IEC WG10 “Power systems management and associated information exchange” meeting and will provide an excellent opportunity to discuss and interact with international experts:



Source and details (SP Energy Networks)

Monday, October 3, 2016

Receive a 40% Discount when You Register Soon For the IEC 61850 Training in Singapore (24-26 Oct)

The three-day IEC 61850 intensive training course in

Singapore on 24-26 October 2016

will give all professionals in the utility industry a comprehensive introduction on IEC 61850. It provides all crucial knowledge engineers need regarding the scope, use-cases, capabilities, benefits, restrictions, limits of IEC 61850, and availability of products (IEDs and Tools).

We are extending a 40% discount for participants who registers with us by 14 October 2016.

Click HERE for more information.

I look forward seeing you there.

Sunday, September 25, 2016

How to use Generic Input/Output Logical Node "GGIO"

The Logical Node Class GGIO (Generic Process I/O) is (in my experience) the most liked and hated Logical Node. Why? GGIO is often used instead of well known Logical Nodes.
Example: Use of GGIO0.ST.Ind1.stVal instead of XCBR0.ST.Pos.stVal
The use of GGIO is not standardized!
You may use it or not ... one way or the other.
Last week I was contacted by an utility engineer on how to map reporting signals (M1-Boolean, M2-Boolean, M3- ...)?
There are two general approaches in the use of GGIO:

1. Add semantic to Prefix of LN and use many GGIO instances (M1_GGIO1, ...)
2. Add semantic to extended Data Objects in GGIO (M1, ...)


In the first case we instantiate GGIO 10 times.
In the second we extend the model by defining Data Objects M1 ... M10

The main difference is that in the second example we can use the prefix of the GGIO ("Report_") -> "Report_GGIO0" as a wrapper for Reporting. The semantic of the signals is further defined by extended Data Objects "M1", "M2", ...
Both modelling approaches are defined in IEC 61850-7-1 and 7-4. The second approach may not be supported by all tools and devices.
I personally would prefer the second approach.

Friday, September 23, 2016

Draft Edition 6 of Common Information Model (CIM) base

IEC TC 57 has just published the Draft Edition 6 (six!) of the CIM base (57/1779/FDIS):
IEC 61970-301: Energy management system application program interface (EMS-API) -
Part 301: Common information model (CIM) base
Voting closes 2016-11-04

This 6th edition comprises 455 pages compared to 182 pages (Ed1), 187 pages (Ed2), 260 pages (Ed3), and 323 pages (Ed5).

New topics comprise:
  • DC model for CIM
  • Static Var Compensator voltage regulation
  • Package DC
  • Annex A (informative) Custom extensions
    European extensions
Click HERE for a nice introduction to CIM [pdf].

Wednesday, September 21, 2016

How secure are “Air-Gapped” Systems?


Many experts believe that it is sufficient to have an "air-gap" between their system and the internet or other outside systems. Because they expect that an "air-gap" would not allow to attack their system.
Several other experts do not believe that.
A demonstration of a destructive cyber attack vector on “air-gapped” systems will be given during a conference in October 2016:
ICS Cyber Security Conference (www.icscybersecurityconference.com)

Click HERE for the full report.

Tuesday, September 20, 2016

IEC TC 57 Just Published the Draft IEC 61850-90-14 (FACTS)

One of the most comprehensive draft extensions (some 175 pages) of the standard series IEC 61850 has been published the other day for comments:

IEC TR 61850-90-14 – Communication networks and systems for power utility automation –
Part 90-14: Using IEC 61850 for FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission Systems) data modelling (57/1776/DC)
Comments are expected by 2016-10-28

"Due to the latest boom of deploying an exponentially increasing number of power electronics and semiconductor based equipment directly in the area of medium, high and ultra-high voltage transmission networks, the call for integrating those direct current related processes and control  systems into IEC 61850 is only logical and consecutive.
Two main groups of DC based types of applications exist: FACTS devices (shunt and series connected) that mainly influence the network at a definite point of connection and Power Converters (e.g. HVDC, SFC) that additionally allow to transmit active power between two different points of connection. ...
FACTS and Power Conversion are thus indispensable to secure power supply and represent a vital component within the backbone of efficient, reliable and resilient future smart grids. This technical report finally enables those technologies to also become an integral part of the IEC 61850 world."

12 new logical node classes are proposed:

AEPC  Automatic Emergency Power Control
ARUB Automatic Run-Up/Run-Back Module
ASEQ  Generic Automatic Sequencer
ATCC  Automatic Tap Changer Controller
CFPC  Control of FACTS and Power Conversion
CREL  Control Release
GFUN  Generic Control Function
MCON  Converter Measurement
RLFR  DC Line Fault Recovery Sequence
XFPC  FACTS and Power Converter device
XDCC  DC Circuit
ZHAF  Harmonic Filter

I hope that the vendors AND users will contribute to the review of this crucial extension.



Thursday, September 15, 2016

Demystifying and Mastering the Complexity of IEC 61850 (San Diego, 30 January 2017)

FMTP (Uppsala, Sweden) and NettedAutomation (Karlsruhe, Germany) will conduct a one day intensive course that opens doors You never dreamed:

Demystifying and mastering the complexity of IEC 61850

Where: San Diego (CA) – exact location will be announced well in advance
When: Monday, January 30, 2017,  10am-4pm

Speakers:
Mr. Andrea Bonetti (Senior Protection and Power Automation Engineer)
Mr. Karlheinz Schwarz (Senior Communication and Application Engineer)
Learn the challenges and drawbacks after 20 years of IEC 61850 and related Standards.
Who should attend?
All people that have heard about the complexity of the standard series IEC 61850 – BUT had not yet a chance to understand what it really provides. People that are looking for comprehensive and neutral information.
Click HERE for more details and registration information [pdf, 350KB].

List of some 700 IEC 61850 Certificates Issued by the UCAIUG

The UCAIUG group has issued almost 700 certificates for IEC 61850 implementations.

Click HERE to access the list of UCAIUG Certificates.

Wednesday, September 14, 2016

IEC 61850 in North America

These days we hear some noise from a few US people telling you that the interest in IEC 61850 in North America is still low. Ok. What does this mean? Almost nothing.
IEC 61850 is used in many applications in North America - many are not publicly reported. Why should a customer that is happy with the solution talk about it in the public?
When you check the list of open positions in the US, you can see that there is new interest in this technology - in addition to traditional communication solutions like Modbus and DNP3:
Check for example a open position at GOOGLE (Data Center Control Systems Engineer, Mountain View, CA):

"Minimum qualifications:
  • BS degree or equivalent practical experience.
  • 10 years of experience in the design and operation of mission critical facilities, including programming and design experience.
  • Experience with facility power and cooling related infrastructure systems for data centers or equivalent critical infrastructure, including PLCs, SCADA systems, historians, industrial automation and controls systems design. Experience with bussed I/O including IEC 61850 and Modbus.
  • Experience in the compliance requirements of pertinent codes, regulations, and standards."
Click HERE for the complete GOOGLE Job description.
Another 20+ open positions in the US can be found on www.simplyhired.com. Click HERE.
In Germany you find 10+ open job descriptions. Click HERE.
The number of visitors of this blog from the US is also growing and already high: 300+ per day (average during the last months).
More to come.

Tuesday, September 13, 2016

Pt 100 Temperature Relay with IEC 61850 GOOSE

Ziehl (Schwäbisch Hall, Germany) has integrated IEC 61850 GOOSE into their Pt 100 temperature relay for up to 12 sensors with electric 10 MBit/s Ethernet interface.

The TR1200IP can be used wherever multiple Pt 100 sensors (up to 12) need to be evaluated simultaneously:
- Motors or generators,
- also with simultaneous monitoring of bearings or, e.g., exhaust temperatures
- Transformers, also with additional core-temperature monitoring
- Machines and plants
Type TR1200IP temperature relays register the temperature of up to 12 sensors simultaneously and provide the values to the electric 10 MBit/s Ethernet interface.
2 IP protocols are supported, so the registered temperatures can be subsequently evaluated by connected devices that are linked with the TR1200IP via an Ethernet network. In motors, that could be a motor contactor, in transformers a transformer contactor with integrated overload function and thermal monitoring.
An alarm relay reports devices and sensor errors. Sensor breaks or sensor short-circuits are also transmitted via the protocol to the connected evaluation unit.

Click HERE for a general overview.
Click HERE for GOOSE configuration.
Click HERE for the manual.

The GOOSE messages could be received by an HMS SG Gateway either as a client or a server. The SG Gateway could convert the received GOOSE messages into an IEC 61850 server to provide Reporting and Logging and convert to IEC 60870-5-104 or DNP3.

Monday, September 12, 2016

Case Study - IEC 61850 Application for a Transmission Substation in Ghana

A lot of discussions about the benefits of using IEC 61850 have happened in the past and are still going on ... and will go on also in 2017 and beyond.

A nice paper has been presented some three years ago:

Case Study: IEC 61850 Application for a Transmission Substation in Ghana

"One of the benefits of implementing IEC 61850 is minimizing or even eliminating the copper field wiring used to exchange protection and control data between intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) across a substation. Conversely, implementing IEC 61850 has introduced commissioning, testing, and maintenance complexity that can be alleviated with proper training, documentation, and testing plans. The design and implementation of the Kintampo, Ghana, transmission substation required redundant protection and control functions distributed among the IEDs and a robust communications network to implement IEC 61850 protocols. ...
As the acceptance of IEC 61850 communications by utilities grows, this type of large-scale project will grow as well. ...
A system solution that is repeatable, pre-engineered, pretested, and designed to specifications is extremely important because it provides the user with a standardized solution that can be implemented across the system, minimizing different designs."

Click HERE for the 10 page paper [pdf]

Saturday, September 10, 2016

How to get Interoperability and Interchangeability with IEC 61850?

The standardization process in the context of IEC 61850 is picking up quite fast. As you have learned in the posts of today and older ones, there are several new topics on the list of items to work on for future new parts of IEC 61850.
One of the crucial objectives is the interoperability and INTERCHANGEABILITY of devices from different vendors in a multi-vendor system.
To reach this goal, we need standards! Sure. But what is absolutely required is the EDUCATION of experts from Vendors, Utilities and System integrators.
We offer the right courses for you: With focus on protection, automation and SCADA.In English and German.
Due to the request from power engineers FMTP and NettedAutomation have scheduled several dates for public training courses in 2017:
The next courses are:

19-23 September 2016 in Stockholm, Sweden [EN]
10-13 Oktober 2016 in Karlsruhe, Germany [EN]
07-09 Dezember 2016 in Karlsruhe, Germany [DE]
Click HERE for more details.
Hurry to reserve your seat!
You would get more than in any other course - because two of most experienced experts (Andrea Bonetti and Karlheinz Schwarz) will guide you through the most crucial aspects of IEC 61850. The combined experience of the two is unparalleled.

ENTSO-E proposes some Extensions of IEC 61850

IEC TC 57 distributed a proposal from ENTSO-E to add some features to IEC 61850 (57/1771/DC):

Proposed new work items by ENTSO-E to introduce additional specification features of IEC 61850 based systems within SCL

Edition 2 of IEC 61850-4 was published in 2011. Edition 2 of IEC 61850-6 was published in 2009. Ultimately, the proposal by the ENTSO-E statement and example of engineering process, aims to serve the market in order to reach the multi-vendor interoperability of systems in an efficient way.

Crucial Topics are:
  1. Input and data flow modelling / Virtual IED - Introduction of additional specification features of IEC 61850 based systems within SCL.
  2. System engineering efficiency - Introduction of additional specification and configuration features of IEC 61850 based systems within SCL.
  3. Communication Network Description - Introduction of additional specification and configuration features of IEC 61850 based systems within SCL.
Please note that big utilities (in Europe ...) have already used SCL to specify the details they want vendors to implement. The time where vendors could model the automation system the way they like it most seems to be over soon. Utilities start to understand that even interchangeability is the ultimate goal!!
It all depends on the willingness to cooperate!
Teamwork makes the dream work!

Machine-processable Format of IEC 61850-related Data Models

IEC TC 57 proposes a new work item (57/1768/NP) IEC 61850-7-7:

Communication networks and systems for power utility automation – Part 7-7: Basic communication structure – Machine-processable format of IEC 61850-related data models for tools (proposed 61850-7-7)

Closing date for voting: 2016-11-25

This technical specification will define an XML schema for describing the code components of the data model parts of IEC 61850, to be used as input for tools (typically engineering or specification tools).

In order to foster an active tool market with good quality, and at the end to improve IEC 61850 interoperability, the market needs a machine-processable file describing data model related parts of the standard as input.
This will avoid the need for any engineering tool related to the IEC 61850 datamodel to get the content of the standard manually entered, with the highest risk of mistakes.

The NP comes with a 150 page draft.

New Work Proposal for Extending the System Configuration Language (SCL) for HMIs


IEC TC 57 has published (57/1767/NP) a proposal for extending the System Configuration Language (SCL) to provide high-level direction in terms of how best to bind the HMI graphical objects with the IEC 61850 data objects/attributes using the configuration description language defined in IEC 61850-6. It builds upon the existing System Configuration Language (SCL) defined in IEC 61850-6, in addition to possibly incorporating other non-IEC namespaces such as the W3C's Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) namespace.

Communication networks and systems for power utility automation - Part 6xx: Configuration description language for communication in power utility automation systems related to Human Machine Interfaces (proposed IEC 61850-6xx)

This work will definitely helping to simplify the graphical representation of DataTypeTemplates in IEC 61850-6 (SCL).


A SCL DataTypeTemplate for a temperature measurement "STMP_0" could be bound to a graphical representation.



The depicted LNType has five related DataObjects. The temperature curve could be shown at an HMI as implemented in the client (HMI) interface of the VHPready demo. The VHPready demo could be downloaded. Click HERE for the access.
The client application of the demo is programmed in C#. A graphical template could be programmed ... if you need it. We could offer such a template if you are interested.


New Part IEC 61850-90-20 proposed - Guideline to Redundancy Systems

IEC TC 57 has proposed a new part for IEC 61850 (57/1766/DC):

Proposal to develop IEC TR 61850-90-20: Communication networks and systems for power utility automation – Part 90-20: Guideline to redundancy systems

As more application domains are added to the IEC 61850, additional modelling, description and functional capabilities need to be added to the “core” of IEC 61850.
One of the missing capabilities is functional redundancy, required by e.g. HVDC, FACTS and industrial applications. Other redundancy systems might also need additions to the standard for correct modelling.
This should be investigated in this work.

It is intended to write a Technical Report.

IEC 61850 Applications Outside Power Utilities

IEC 61850 is often applied in non-utility application domains. Three examples are documented in the following papers:

1. Refinary in North America
"Integrating SCADA, Load Shedding, and High-Speed Controls on an Ethernet Network at a North American Refinery"
This paper discusses the implementation of an Ethernet communications network in a ring that connects substations in a closed communications loop at a large industrial facility. Data are transmitted at protection speeds and must be dependable for industrial power system operation and maintenance applications. The redundant electric power system Ethernet communications network is used for a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system that automates industrial electric power system operations.
Click HERE for the complete paper [pdf]

2. Petrochemical Plant
"SACE Emax 2 -- IEC 61850 integration with MV systems"
PVC plant in Jemeppe needed to upgrade the LV side of the electrical plant, so that it could be fully integrated into IEC 61850 protocol used in MV switchboards. Not only customer needed to monitor status and parameters from air circuit breakers installed in the LV switchboards, but also to control them remotely and to interlock them with MV ones.
Jemeppe plant was aiming at a higher system productivity, by avoiding protocol converters, and an increase of safety for technicians thanks to remote control for air circuit breakers.
Click HERE for the complete paper [pdf]

3. Siemens helps Solvay
Solvay Group: International Chemical and Pharmaceutical Company
Solvay uses IEC 61850 for the Operation of high, medium and low voltage systems.
Worldwide systems in use with IEC 61850 up to the network control level, others being planned
Click HERE for more information [pdf]

Thursday, September 1, 2016

New Gateway for EtherNet/IP from and to IEC 61850, DNP3, IEC 60870-5-104, ...

The Anybus® SG-gateway is designed to specifically target Demand Response (networking of industrial electric loads) and Virtual Power Plants (networking of energy resources like biogas plants or combined heat and power units) applications.
REMOTE TERMINAL UNIT FOR SMART GRID APPLICATIONS
The SG-gateway with EtherNet/IP implements a real-time EtherNet/IP adapter interface with an integrated 2-port switch, allowing seamless network integration regardless of network topology (line, star, bus).



















Click HERE for details.

Friday, August 26, 2016

Amendment to Power Quality Meter Goes IEC 61850 and IEC 60870-5-104

The recent post "Power Quality Meter Goes IEC 61850 and IEC 60870-5-104" needs some explanation to understand what the Gateway could do.
In the case described in the post, we use one gateway for one power quality meter. Of course this is only one example. A single gateway can acquire signals from many power quality meters from different brands and via different protocols: Modbus I/O, Modbus/TCP, Profibus, ProfiNet, Ethernet/IP, and IEC 61850.
The gateway acts as well as a data concentrator, data manager, or proxy gateway. You may use it for any other signals - outside the power quality application. It may be connected to a substation LAN and tap GOOSE messages flying around.
The nice thing is: It can transform between (almost) ANY protocol without the need that IEC 61850 or IEC 60870-5-10x is integrated directly into the end device like a power quality meter.
In the future we will see more devices that have IEC 61850 integrated into their devices (by using a special piece of hardware or integrated onto the main controller of the device).

Thursday, August 25, 2016

How to Exchange a Voltage Measurement with IEC 61850?

As discussed before you will find a reasonable example to learn the benefits of applying IEC 61850.
Let's look at a voltage measurement:



According to IEC Electropedia we find many names for the same semantic: voltage, Spannung, spenning, ... Ok. These help humans to understand what we are talking about. But what about machines (controllers, SCADA systems, ..)?
They have to use a data type (int16, int32, float32, ...) and a reference (address ...) for a specific protocol like Modbus. Each vendor will likely use different types and addresses.
What's about the scale in applications that use integer? Is the scale known when you read the value of a voltage? Do you know the offset or the multiplier (V, kV, mV, ...)?
How do you know where the measurement is taken in the electrical system (location in the single line diagram)?
Answers to these questions may be found in a set of documents sitting on a shelf or on someones computer - hard to find out if the owner is on vacation.
With IEC 61850 we have a model that could be implemented so that all these details are always accessible online from each device that is a source of measurements:



Phase A voltage has a standard name "MMXU.PhV.phsA" with the value, quality, timestamp, units, and scale. These names are used all over in any IEC 61850 device.

IEC 61850 services allow to retrieve the MMXU model and read the values:



The device has all information to interpret the voltage value for phase A.

Finally we need to know where the value is measured in the single line diagram. IEC 61850-6 (SCL) provides the solution specified as an SCL file (simplified SSD - Substation Specification Description):


The above voltage could be designated as follows:
MySub_400kV_3A63_BayFunction_ABC/ACMMXU1.PhV.phsA

The value is located in the device "BayController". The device is communication wise identified by an IP Address.

This information really exposes all information needed to interpret a measurement. 
Note that this name needs not to be communicated when the value is reported cyclically or issued by a limit change.The report message could only carry the value, quality and timestamp.
The SCL file has all information to configure the whole system and the devices.
Any question?
Hope you have learned this: IEC 61850 goes very far beyond a protocol! We only need the protocol when we retrieve the selfdescription or read out or report the values.
And: the nice thing is that any device that implements the standard uses the same model, configuration, and services. What else do we need?

If we would apply just a protocol like Modbus then most of the information exposed (directly from the device) through the standard IEC 61850 would have to be stored in paper docs or excel sheets ... 

Once Again: Is IEC 61850 another Protocol?

IEC 61850 and related standards like IEC 61400-25 offer very complex definitions that are intended to ease the life-cycle of the whole system: design, engineering, configuration, operation, maintenance, system extension, documentation, error diagnosis, ...
In my experience with protocols since 1982 (when I started working for Siemens) I have seen (too) many protocols coming and going. I guess I could list several hundred protocols including IEC 60870-5-10x, DNP3, Profibus FMS, Profibus DP, ...

Many experts (especially in the higher management and HR) have years of experience with one or several protocols - working with 600 baud or even 100 Mbit/s Ethernet based links. It happens quite often that those experts are promoted for higher management functions. Many of them have no experience with the approach of IEC 61850. But they often have to decide if, how and when the new technology will be used.

Because of the complexity, they may decide not to use it at all and even not trying to understand what it really could offer their engineers - at least as long as they are the persons in charge.

The real issue is (as Dee Hock, Founder of Visa put it): "The problem is never how to get new, innovative thoughts [IEC 61850] into someones mind, but how to get old ones out." One of these "old ones" is the opinion that IEC 61850 is something like DNP4 or IEC 60870-5-105 -- just another but more complex protocol (MMS, ISO 9506). This (old, too old, wrong) opinion has also a big impact on decisions, e.g., to get a green-light for attending an IEC 61850 training course. Managers and HR often have the opinion: Why do we need this comprehensive training (of 2, 3, 4, or 5 days) for just another protocol? Often the light stays at RED!
We could put it in future in a different way:

  1. IEC 61850 Protocol Training -> 1/2 day
  2. IEC 61850 Services (Client/Server, Publisher/Subscriber, Reporting, Control, Setting Groups, ...) -> 1 day
  3. IEC 61850 Modeling and Models -> 1 day
  4. IEC 61850 Engineering and Configuration -> 3 days 
  5. How to use it for protection, SCADA, monitoring, power generation applications -> x days (depending on what application you have in mind).
If you don't understand what Models and SCL provide ... either take a course or stop discussing it.

IEC 61850 is not intended to replace any other protocol with MMS! In order to harvest the fruits of the application of IEC 61850, you have to look at any other topic than protocols.

But you have to be open to take a closer look at the issues listed under bullets 2 to 5.

You will not get an answer by just reading the standards ... take a course to get a reasonable understanding.

Be an ENGINEER - not just a boss or a leader.
Click HERE for a nice illustration at LinkedIn (or optionally HERE) to see the difference between old approaches and the engineers solution. IEC 61850 is a very big vehicle to carry a lot of loads - to make life easier.

I will post some example to show you the real benefits.

Tuesday, August 23, 2016

Neues Format für viertägiges IEC 61850 Seminar im Dezember 2016 in Karlsruhe

Der Bedarf an guter mehrtägiger Schulung kollidiert oft der notwendigen Anwesenheit am Arbeitsplatz! Die NettedAutomation GmbH hat jetzt eine Antwort für Sie gefunden:

Wir bieten bieten vom

06.-09. Dezember 2016 in Karlsruhe 
drei Seminarblöcke (1 Tag, 2 Tage und 1 Tag) 

an, die einzeln oder in Kombination gebucht werden können. Sie entscheiden selbst, ob Sie nur einen Tag von Ihrem Arbeitsplatz fern bleiben möchten oder zwei, drei oder vier. Je nachdem, welche Zeit und welchen Bedarf Sie haben.

Am ersten Tag wird ein Überblick über das Normungsumfeld und die einzelnen Normen gegeben. Im Mittelpunkt stehen dabei die grundlegenden Eigenschaften und Bedeutung der Normenreihe IEC 61850 für Systemdesign, System- und Geräteengineering, Datenmodellierung, Datenmodelle, Kommunikationsmöglichkeiten (Client/Server, Publisher/Subscriber) und Sicherheitslösungen.

Am zweiten Tag werden die Modellierungsmethode, die vielfältigen Modelle (Logische Knoten), die Kommunikationsdienste und -protokolle und die System-Konfigurations-Sprache (SCL) im Detail vorgestellt.

Am dritten Tag werden anhand vieler praktischer SCL-Beispiele Systembeschreibungen (SSD), Systemkonfigurationen (SCD), Gerätekonfigurationen (ICD und CID für Server/Publisher, Client/Subscriber und Server/Subscriber) diskutiert, erstellt und formal geprüft. Dabei kommt eine Reihe von Werkzeugen und Geräten zum Einsatz.

Am vierten Tag wird das Erlernte in praktischen Übungen mit marktgängigen Geräten und Werkzeugen vertieft.

Sie können den 1. Tag, den 2. und 3. Tag sowie den 4. Tag getrennt oder in jeder Kombination buchen!

Mit unserer Schulung bereiten wir Sie hervorragend auf neue Herausforderungen vor!

Klicken Sie HIER um mehr Details und Anmeldeinformationen herunterzuladen [pdf, 320 KB].

Die mehr als 4.100 Teilnehmer meiner über 230 Seminare seit 2004 würden sicher alle bestätigen, dass das komplexe Thema IEC 61850 unbedingt eine geeignete Schulung verlangt -- und dass wir eine erst-klassische Schulung bieten!

We will offer the same seminar in English from 13-16 Dezember 2016 as well in Karlsruhe (Germany). Details will be available the next days.

Friday, August 19, 2016

New Flyer for IEC 61850 Training conducted by FMTP and NettedAutomation

FMTP (Uppsala, Sweden) and NettedAutomation (Karlsruhe, Germany) designed a new flyer for IEC 61850 training courses:


The flyer lists all crucial topics that are comprised by the various training opportunities: public or in-house, 3, 4, or 5 days ... or as many days you (our customer) want.

In some cases we offered a 1 day introduction course - the maximum number of training days was 11 days (in three sessions) for a big transmission utility in Europe. Another training took 10 days in one block. The maximum number of attendees was 350 for 3 days:



Click HERE for a brief report of the Bangalore event.

You get whatever you need - 
wherever you are, 
whenever you are prepared to get it.
Talk to your management or HR - to get it.
You deserve it!


Click HERE for the new 2 page flyer [pdf, 1. MB]

I look forward to meeting you some time down the street.

Thursday, August 18, 2016

IEC 61859 Training Course in Stockholm is Filling-Up - Reserve your Seat Now

FMTP, KTH, OPAL RT, and NettedAutomation have scheduled a very comprehensive IEC 61850 Training in Stockholm (Sweden) for 19-23 September 2016.
The course is filling-up very fast.
Please reserve your seat as soon as possible.





Click HERE for the brochure with all details.
A similar Course (4 days) is scheduled for Karlsruhe (Germany) 10.-13. October 2016.

See you soon.

Wednesday, August 17, 2016

IEC just published Draft Guidelines for Handling Role-based Access Control in Power Systems

IEC TC 57 just published (57/1764/DC):

Draft IEC TR 62351-90-1, Power systems management and associated information exchange – Data and communications security – Part 90-1: Guidelines for Handling Role-based Access Control in Power Systems

This draft technical report addresses the handling of access control of users and automated agents
to data objects in power systems by means of role-based access control (RBAC) as defined in
IEC 62351-8. IEC 62351-8 defines three different profiles to distribute role information and
also defines a set of mandatory roles to be supported. Adoption of RBAC has shown that the
defined mandatory roles are not always sufficient and that the method for defining custom
roles should be standardized to ensure interoperability. Hence, the main focus of this
document lies in developing a standardized method for defining and engineering custom
roles, their role-to-right mappings and the corresponding infrastructure support needed to
utilize these custom roles in power systems.

Comments are welcome latest by 2016-10-07.

Tuesday, August 16, 2016

IEC 61850: Gateway for Cloud Computing and Fog Computing

Cloud computing and Fog Computing is in principle supported by a single gateway offered by HMS:

  • Bridges any signal from the process level directly to your own or third party cloud.
  • Maps any signal from Modbus, Profibus, ProfiNet, Ethernet/IP, IEC 61850, IEC 61400-25, IEC 60870-5-104 ... to Modbus, Profibus, ProfiNet, Ethernet/IP, IEC 61850, IEC 61400-25, IEC 60870-5-104 ...
  • Provides many logic functions AND, OR, Timer, Counter, ... to build applications.
  • Has digital Input and Output pins.
  • Reads M-Bus.
  • Supports Client, Server, Client/Server, Client/GOOSE-Subscription (with or more Server/GOOSE-Publishers), and Sever/GOOSE-Subscription
  • What else do you need for simple applications?

Click HERE for more information.

Next Hype: Do You Know Fog Computing?

Some 30 years ago the hype was: MAP (Manufacturing Automation Protocol). One of the next hype is "Fog Computing".

"The Manufacturing Automation Protocols (MAP) and Technical Office Protocols (TOP) were the first commercially defined and accepted functional profiles. Both arose because of the operational concerns of two large corporations, General Motors and Boeing. lt is generally accepted that MAP and TOP were the forerunners, first in adopting OSI standards and then in developing usable profiles.
lt all started at the end of the 1970s. GM had on its manufacturing plant shop floors some 20 000 programmable controllers, 2000 robots, and more than 40 000 intelligent devices, all in support of its business. The main problem was that less than one-eighth of the equipment could communicate beyond the limits of its own island of automation; the main inhibiting factor to greater integration being the lack of an appropriate communications infrastructure. As devices supplied were mostly vendor-specific, to do a particular job, they were not designed or optimised to intercommunicate or support each other's functions.
GM finally realised the gravity of their situation when they began to evaluate the cost of automation, attributing half the cost to the need for devices to intercommunicate. To resolve the matter a task force was created comprising representatives from GM's divisions and their suppliers, with the objective of developing an independent computer network protocol capable of supporting a true multi-vendor environment on the shop floor. They used the OSI model and standards as a basis for interconnection and development of further enhancements. " (Source: The Essential OSI, NSW Technical and Further Education Commission 1991)

The first MAP Profile was published in 1982, Version 1.0 in 1984, MAP 3.0 in 1988. Long time ago!

The MAP approach was understood by just a few experts. Most people believed that MAP was too complex, too ... The fieldbusses were thought as the solutions that could cover a kind of Mini-MAP and realtime communication. MAP passed away and hundreds of fieldbusses have been developed since the late 80s. The result was that myriads of automation islands hit the factory floor. These islands where bridged with OPC and so on ... Now we write 2016! Is there anything new?

Not that much. We still have the problem that the sheer unlimited number of (usually raw) signals (measurements, status, settings, ...) are polled or pushed from the sensor and actuator level all the way up to the SCADA level or even higher. This approach of signal acquisition does not scale in the future where we expect thousand of times more devices, sensors, controllers, ... as GM had to manage in the 70s. Does the Cloud Computing solve this challenge? It is unlikely that this (more or less raw data acquisition) will work?

And now? What to do? Use Fog Computing!

"Fog computing is the missing link to accelerate IoT.  It spans the continuum from Cloud to Things in order to bring compute, control, storage and networking closer to where the data is being generated.

The sheer breadth and scale of IoT solutions requires collaboration at a number of levels, including hardware, software across edge and cloud as well as the protocols and standards that enable all of our “things” to communicate. Existing infrastructures simply can’t keep up with the data volume and velocity created by IoT devices, nor meet the low latency response times required in certain use cases, such as emergency services and autonomous vehicles. The strain on networks from cloud-only or cloud-mostly models will only get worse as IoT applications and devices continue to proliferate.  In addition, the devices themselves are starting to become smarter, allowing for additional control and capabilities closer to where the data is being generated." (http://www.openfogconsortium.org/about-us/#frequently-asked-questions)

Quite interesting that the hype Cloud Computing is seen from a different perspective in 2016.

The approach of IEC 61850 (starting in 1998) is from the very beginning the same as discussed in the Fog Computing community: Compute, control, store, and networking closer to where the data is being generated (at THE process level like in substations or power generation all over). Many information models standardized in IEC 61850 and IEC 61400-25 define distributed functions like protection, active power control or reactive power compensation ... schedules for tariffs, alarming, tripping, reporting by exception (RBE), ... in order to reduce the needed bandwidth and allow for realtime and near realtime behavior.

Lesson learned: Fog Computing is already practiced in the domain of power automation - and based on well defined standards (IEC 61850 and IEC 61400-25)! Both standard series make use of the most crucial standard of MAP: MMS (Manufacturing Message Specification, ISO 9506). It took some 30 years for more people to understand the challenges! ;-) There is nothing new under the sun.

Saturday, August 6, 2016

IEC 61850-90-10 Draft Technical Report on Schedules just published

IEC TC 57 just published the Draft Technical Report:
IEC/TR 61850-90-10 Ed.1.0 (57/1762/DTR)
Communication networks and systems for power utility automation -
Part 90-10: IEC 61850 objects for scheduling

Closing date for voting is 2016-09-30

Schedules establish which behavior (e.g., tariff 1 or 2, mode 1 or 3) or expectation (e.g., forecast) is applied during specified time periods. A schedule consists of a series of entries with a setting for the value of a setpoint, the selection of a particular mode or the value of a parameter for a mode.
There are different ways to operate a scheduled entity based on the following operation principles:

  • The actual values of a scheduled entity (e.g. active and reactive power produced or consumed) are directly controlled using setpoints and controls. For example, the DER system reacts on changes of the setpoints or on controls (e.g. start or stop the DER system) in real time.
  • The functional behavior of a scheduled entity is configured to operate in a mode in which it responds to locally sensed conditions (e.g. Volt-VAr Mode in case of DER) or externally provided information (e.g. prices). 

The schedules offer a very powerful functionality that can be used in many different applications.
Currently we have two major applications in Germany  that make use of the schedules: 
  1. VHPready
  2. FNN Steuerbox
NettedAutomation has implemented the most crucial concepts on an embedded controller used in the HMS gateways.

More to come soon.

Thursday, August 4, 2016

What is a Critical Infrastructure?


According to Wikipedia:
"Critical infrastructure is a term used by governments to describe assets that are essential for the functioning of a society and economy - the infrastructure."

The first three infrastructures listed are:
  1. electricity generation, transmission and distribution;
  2. gas production, transport and distribution;
  3. oil and oil products production, transport and distribution;
  4. ...
Many other areas could be taken into account - all domains where we have some automation in one form or another you may or may NOT TRUST. So far we have trusted our teachers, our employers, our parents, our car, our friends, our banks, our electric power delivery system ... There seems to be a change coming step by step.
What could we all do about it? 
For our family we have just decided to install a 9,8 kWp Photo Voltaic system on our roof. This is - hopefully - a power harvesting machine we could trust ... as long as the sun is shining.
The latest issue discussed is on "Election Systems" according to the FederalNewsRadio:
"The Homeland Security Department is actively considering whether it should add the nation’s election system — or the individual systems that 9,000 local and state jurisdictions use to collect, tally and report votes — as an entity that needs DHS protection from cybersecurity attacks."

What if we put it all under the new term "Critical Everything" (CE)?
All depends on human beings we have to trust! I want to be such a person - my wife, my family, our friends, you, ... can trust.

When we engineers develop something, we should pay a lot of attention to make the "something" robust, safe, ... better safe than sorry.

Let's do our best in the interest of all our societies.

Sunday, July 31, 2016

Power Quality Meter Goes IEC 61850 and IEC 60870-5-104

Friday last week I was involved in installing a high level Power Quality Meter (UMG 512 from Janitza) to monitor the power for a new building:



The objective was to apply a smart gateway between the Meter and IEC 61850 and IEC 60870-5-104. It took some 90 minutes to install the meter and configure it for Modbus TCP communication. The gateway used is an HMS Anybus SG Gateway I/O.



The gateway offers connectivity to Profibus, ProfiNet, Ethernet/IP, and other protocols.
The gateway reads out 22 signals from the Meter (all new Meters from Janitza use the same addresses for the basic signals):


The Modbus signals (from an UMG 604) are listed in the gateway for polling:



As well we need to configure the Signals for IEC 61850 and IEC 60870-5-104:


The signals in IEC 61850 are configured with an SCL File. The 104 signals need manually configuration.











Finally we need to program the mapping from Modbus to IEC 61850 LNs and IEC 60870-5-104 signals. The drop-down menu is used to place the signals to the screen:



Finally the inputs are linked to the outputs:



The signals from the Meter are automatically exposed through IEC 61850 and IEC 60870-5-104 servers.
The IEDScout 4.1 from Omicron is used to connect to the IEC 61850 Server in the Gateway:



And the QTester104 receives messages from the IEC 60870-5-104 server:



Lesson learned: It took less than one hour to configure the Gateway and use it.
This is likely the easiest and fastest way to communicate Power Quality Meter signals through IEC 61850 and IEC 60870-5-104. 

Wednesday, July 27, 2016

Could You Measure a Change in Air Flow caused by a Wind Turbine in a distance of 100 km?

Assume an air flow of x m**3 per second. What happens at your position if a big wind turbine is starting to rotate in a distance of 100 km? Do you expect that you could measure that the air flow is reduced due to the wind turbine that removes energy from the air flow? It may be possible if the turbine would be located in a huge tube. So far so good.
Another question: Could you believe "that a short-circuit at Lawrence Berkeley lab one day was observed by a micro-PMU [Phasor Measurement Units] in Los Angeles, 550 kilometers away, as a 0.002 percent dip in voltage"? It is more likely that one can measure a 0.002 percent dip in 550 km distance than a change in air flow 100 km away caused by a wind turbine.
With a network of many micro-PMUs it may be possible to figure out that somebody is switching on a computer. If you install enough micro-PMUs you may get there.
With a good power quality meter and pattern recognition I could figure out when my wife switches on the Toaster or Microwave.

Each of load (in our home or in the neighborhood) has a specific finger print. So that I could see the patterns and learn what they mean - after some training.

Some people made this observation "We're watching the volts and the amps and we’re not even inside the substation. We’re five miles away. We came up with this idea: What if we were to tell the substation operator that this substation switch is opening and closing? If they were the ones opening and closing it, that’s great. But if not, that’s a pretty good sign that there’s a cyber attack at least being experimented with.”

This is a true story (I guess).

Click HERE for a news report from IEEE Spectrum.

More Big Data to come. Be aware in your home that a power quality meter connected to the copper wire some 20 to 50 m away may be watching you. What about privacy? Is it a good thing to know (almost) everything?
"For in much wisdom is much grief; and he that increaseth knowledge increaseth sorrow." (Kohelet 1:18)